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Modifiers

Dbal allows you to escape and build safe SQL query. It provides these powerful parameter modifiers:

Modifier Type Description
%s, %?s, %s[] string not nullable, nullable, array of
%i, %?i, %i[] integer not nullable, nullable, array of
%f, %?f, %f[] float not nullable, nullable, array of
%b, %?b, %b[] boolean not nullable, nullable, array of
%dt, %?dt, %dt[] datetime not nullable, nullable, array of
read more about datetime handling; using wrong modifier may damage your data
%ldt, %?ldt, %ldt[] local datetime datetime without timezone conversion
read more about datetime handling; using wrong modifier may damage your data
%blob, %?blob, %blob[] binary string not nullable, nullable, array of
%any any value
%_like, %like_, %_like_ string like left, like right, like both sides
%json, %?json, %json[] any not nullable, nullable, array of

All modifiers require an argument of the specific data type - eg. %f accepts only floats and integers.

$connection->query('id = %i AND name IN (%?s, %?s)', 1, NULL, 'foo');
// `id` = 1 AND name IN (NULL, 'foo')

$connection->query('name LIKE %_like_', $query);
// escapes query and adds % to both sides
// name LIKE '%escaped query expression%'

Other available modifiers:

Modifier Description
%and AND condition
%or OR condition
%multiOr OR condition with multiple conditions in pairs
%values, %values[] expands array for INSERT clause, multi insert
%set expands array for SET clause
%table, %table[] escapes string as table name, may contain a database or schema name separated by a dot; surrounding parentheses are not added to %table[] modifier;
%column, %column[] escapes string as column name, may contain a database name, schema name or asterisk (*) separated by a dot; surrounding parentheses are not added to %column[] modifier;
%ex expands array as processor arguments
%raw inserts string argument as is
%% escapes to single % (useful in date_format(), etc.)
[[, ]] escapes to single [ or ] (useful when working with array, etc.)

Let’s examine %and and %or behavior. If array key is numeric and its value is an array, value is expanded with %ex modifier. (See below.)

$connection->query('%and', [
    'city' => 'Winterfell',
    'age'  => 23,
]);
// `city` = 'Winterfell' AND `age` = 23


$connection->query('%or', [
    'city' => 'Winterfell',
    'age'  => [23, 25],
]);
// `city` = 'Winterfell' OR `age` IN (23, 25)


$connection->query('%or', [
    'city' => 'Winterfell',
    ['[age] IN %i[]', [23, 25]],
]);
// `city` = 'Winterfell' OR `age` IN (23, 25)

If you want select multiple rows with combined condition for each row, you may use multi-column IN expression. However, some databases do not support this feature, therefore Dbal provides universal %multiOr modifier that will handle this for you and will use alternative expanded verbose syntax; let’s see an example:

$connection->query('%multiOr', [
    ['tag_id' => 1, 'book_id' => 23],
    ['tag_id' => 4, 'book_id' => 12],
    ['tag_id' => 9, 'book_id' => 83],
]);
// MySQL or PostgreSQL
// (tag_id, book_id) IN ((1, 23), (4, 12), (9, 83))

// SQL Server
// (tag_id = 1 AND book_id = 23) OR (tag_id = 4 AND book_id = 12) OR (tag_id = 9 AND book_id = 83)

Examples of inserting and updating:

$connection->query('INSERT INTO [users] %values', [
    'name' => 'Jon Snow'
]);
// INSERT INTO `users` (`name`) VALUES ('Jon Snow')


$connection->query('INSERT INTO [users] %values[]', [
    ['name' => 'Jon Snow'],
    ['name' => 'The Imp'],
]);
// INSERT INTO `users` (`name`) VALUES ('Jon Snow'), ('The Imp')


$connection->query('UPDATE [users] SET %set WHERE [id] = %i', [
    'name' => 'Jon Snow'
], 1);
// UPDATE `users` SET `name` = 'Jon Snow' WHERE `id` = 1

%ex modifier expands passed array as arguments of new query() method call.

$connection->query('%ex', ['id = %i', 1]);
// equals to
$connection->query('id = %i', 1);

Custom Modifiers

You may add support for own modifier. To do that, create new factory class for SqlProcessor and use setCustomModifier() method:

use Nextras\Dbal\Drivers\IDriver;
use Nextras\Dbal\ISqlProcessorFactory;
use Nextras\Dbal\SqlProcessor;

class SqlProcessorFactory implements ISqlProcessorFactory
{
    public function create(IDriver $driver, array $config): SqlProcessor
    {
        $processor = new SqlProcessor($driver);
        $processor->setCustomModifier(
            'mybool',
            function (SqlProcessor $processor, $value) {
                return $processor->processModifier('s', $bool ? 'yes' : 'no');
            }
        );
        return $processor;
    }
}

Modifier Resolver

SqlProcessor allows setting custom modifier resolver for any values passed for both implicit and explicit %any modifier. This way you may introduce custom processing for your custom types. For safety reasons it is possible to override only the %any modifier. To do so, implement ISqlProcessorModifierResolver interface and return the modifier name for the passed value. Finally, register the custom modifier resolver into SqlProcessor. This API is especially powerful in combination with custom modifiers.

use Nextras\Dbal\Drivers\IDriver;
use Nextras\Dbal\ISqlProcessorModifierResolver;
use Nextras\Dbal\ISqlProcessorFactory;
use Nextras\Dbal\SqlProcessor;

class BrickSqlProcessorModifierResolver implements ISqlProcessorModifierResolver
{
    public function resolve($value): ?string
    {
        if ($value instanceof \Brick\DayOfWeek) {
            return 'brickDoW';
        }
        return null;
    }
}

class SqlProcessorFactory implements ISqlProcessorFactory
{
    public function create(IDriver $driver, array $config): SqlProcessor
    {
        $processor = new SqlProcessor($driver);
        $processor->setCustomModifier(
            'brickDoW',
            function (SqlProcessor $processor, $value) {
                assert($value instanceof \Brick\DayOfWeek);
                return $processor->processModifier('s', $value->getValue());
            }
        );
        $processor->addModifierResolver(new BrickSqlProcessorModifierResolver());
        return $processor;
    }
}